What are Glasses

A spectacle is a structure worn before the eyes, as in the majority of cases optical aids correct refractive errors and position errors of the eye and as such they are called correction or prescription glasses. In addition, glasses are used to protect against external influences, injuries or over-stimulation and to therapeutic, diagnostic and experimental purposes. Even as a fashion accessory is the spectacle of importance.

What are Glasses

A pair of eyeglasses consists of glasses defined at digopaul, as honed either lenses have a refractive effect and as a visual aid used, or from cast plates or glasses of different materials that can fulfill different purposes. Additionally it is equipped to stabilize and secure the lenses on a version that can be made of different materials, sizes and shapes, as well as a holding device (ear hook, handle or rear-Head Strap).

Today’s glasses production is based on standards and guidelines. Most filters Optometrists the final product of typically industrial or artisanal prefabricated components manufacture and supply the finished spectacles to the customer. Previously, the necessary glass thickness is determined, usually at the optician or the ophthalmologist. In Germany about 64% of persons over 16 years and about 15% of children need corrective glasses. Glasses were paid in Germany since the 1930s by the statutory health insurance in a simple embodiment. Visual aids are still in the resource directory of the statutory health insurance listed (SHI). [1] The cost of their production, however, only taken with significant limitations. [2]

The correction glasses were invented at the end of the 13th century in Italy, [3] but are magnifying optical aids since the ancient times known.

Etymology

The term “spectacle” derives from the late Middle High German word berille from. This again is attributed to the mineral beryl[4] By 1300 produced one lens of polished semi-precious stones. The name of the gemstone beryl (Latin form Beryllus; he is also named for the contained therein element beryllium ) was used in the Middle Ages as a generic term for all clear crystals, even if made of other materials such as. Bergkristall passed. 1303, the term “oculus berillius” of Bernard of Gordon used in Montpellier.

Albrecht von Scharfenberg gave the “berillus” in younger Titurel increased symbolic meaning. In the resulting 1270 extended Gralsdichtung is “Parille” the name of one of the sons of Senabor. In enumerating the “kinde and child kint” the tribe “Kapadoze” the name is mentioned:

“A sin sun Parille he hiez after stones, / through daz the ougen will because with erget. he maketh groz uz small. / Uz cleinen virtues he made Grozen di “.

“One of his sons he called Parille after stones. Thus the desire of the eye through go there. He makes big tightly. From small virtues he made the big ones. ”

– Verse 99

By choosing the name of the Journey “Parille” is clarified and highlighted its development. This verse represents the oldest monument in the German-speaking countries, where the glasses will be called its name(still as a rock fragment of rock crystal). Many verses later Albrecht attacks the comparison again:

“Sam held the berillus grozet di scripture in the ze read, din herze genozet the, represents all tugende wahsent with wesene high, wide, wit and ouch di lenge.”

“As the Beril enlarging in him to read font, your heart, in all the virtues in their nature resembles highly him, wide, wide and grow in length.”

The heart is so clear and pure as a “berillus” and has the property to grow the virtues. [6]

History

Precursor of glasses

Contrary to some assumptions doubted Egyptologist Alfred Wiedemann that already in ancient Egyptian time (BC 6th century) existed glass lenses with significant optical properties, but recognize in them only storage vessels. [7] According to Chrysippus, however, is to Archimedes († 212 v. Chr. ) have studied the laws of refraction of lenses and wearing a head-mounted crystal for vision correction. His discovery was in antiquity but apparently no practical imitation. Emperor Nero is indeed the gladiator fights have seen through glasses, but they were without refracting action. Only to protect his eyes from the sun served. [8] Seneca the Younger wrote in the 1st century AD “. Small and indistinct characters appear sharper and larger, when viewed through a water-filled sphere”

New approaches yielded the book treasure of the optics of the Arab mathematician, astronomer and optician Alhazen († ca. 1040) after around 1240 the Western stock and in monastery libraries became available. Alhazen described the magnifying effect of a glass spherical segment, the later “reading stone”, but without practical use of his knowledge. The investigations of the Arab who craftsmanship writing monks and the rapidly growing use of writing in urban areas came together. Well in a monastery the first reading stone was cut from rock crystal. To the second half of the 13th century followed reading glasses and glasses.

In addition to the treasure of the optics was a remark from The Golden forging the Middle High German poet Conrad of Würzburg (1220/1230 in Würzburg, 1287 in Basel) a possible development direction: “He [the crystal] has in the great and mighty way […] unless someone ground joints him thin and wanted to keep on writing, the saw through him the small letters seem larger. ” [9]

The invention of spectacles

The reading glasses set as a visual aid for both eyes on the nose was the end of the 13th century in Tuscany invented. The Dominican Giordano da Rivalto mentioned that only a few years earlier invention in a sermon manuscript from the year 1305. [3] The Great Council of Venice was concerned in 1300, 1301 and 1319 with lapides ad legendum (Reading stones) and vitreos from oculis ad legendum (reading glasses). Important preparatory work contributed Roger Bacon, who in his work Opus maius essential knowledge for physical optics delivered and believed spherical segments are excellent aids for partially sighted. [10] Salvino degli Armati was long regarded as the inventor of the glasses, until 1920 it was announced that he a invention. The doctor Peter of Spain, from 1276 Pope XXI John. Was bred as an inventor in consideration. [11] [12] Ultimately, still unknown who invented the glasses (1270-1290).

The first spectacles that arose in Europe before 1300, had no ironing and possessed convex polished lenses only for far- or presbyopic made suitable people. “For the first occurrence and the further spread of the knowledge that a particularly polished rock crystal can font size, far less theoretical associated with a few famous names declarations are responsible; much more, it is the concrete and practical experiences of those who were employed in workshops so, shrines, processional crosses, reliquaries and the like to produce more. […] There are [… many] examples in which such a stone with magnifying effect is still particularly fragmented relics. ” [13] ” In the medieval jewelers often plano polished gems were in the manufacture of shrines, lecture crosses and reliquaries used , This served not only for jewelry, but acted as magnifying sight glasses when they were put in front of particularly fragmented relics “. [14] Their magnification effect was – at first but not for reading – exploited for a long time. The transition to enlarge font is considered very obvious.

The oldest depiction of eyeglasses found on the frescoes of the Italian painter Tommaso da Modena in the chapter hall of San Niccolo in Treviso .They are built around the year 1352nd With a great sense of what is objective and for physiognomic peculiarities Tommaso da Modena has presented on forty frescos, the main representative of the Dominican Order. In the portrait of the Cardinal of Rouen a monocle is shown, which has led close to his eye the sitter. It reads thus in a book that he pitched in his hands. The Portrait of Cardinal Hugo of Provence one is Nietbrille shown that this is stuck on the nose. [15]

The so-called “spectacle apostles” of the altar of the town church of Bad Wildungen, which in 1403 by Conrad von Soest was painted, is the earliest representation of a spectacle north of the Alps. [16] The glasses apostle has become a symbol of the protestant church Bad Wildungen and finds again today in their seals.

In the choir of Aachen Cathedral also two early can be seen “Glasses Apostle”. In addition to the two central statues of Mary and Charlemagne to the inner choir pillars are on consoles under canopies the twelve apostles established. After completion of the Aachener Choir Hall, the sandstone figures whose artists are not known to us today, were installed in the period 1414-1430. On the south side is Thomas. With his right hand he holds an open book. His attribute, the angular extent, depends in the elbow and is clamped between the chest and left forearm. On Leather Belt Thomas carries a knife and a spectacle. On the north side of the choir is Matthias. His left hand covers the long stem of the guest on the floor halberd. He looks in an open book. The right hand is hidden under the cloth of his coat. Only the thumb protrudes and presses from below a half-open Nietbrille against the book cover. [17]

Eyeglass wearers can also be found on the altar of Friedrich Herlin in the Church of St. James Rothenburg ob der Tauber. Created in 1466, it shows in the predella Peter with keys and book. His Nietbrille holds the apostle to read her eyes. In the circumcision scene on a wing of the altar of the painter has the high priest put a pair of glasses on his nose. [18]

The oldest eyeglasses were in 1953 in Wienhausen at Celle found. Both Nietbrillen date from the 14th century and are kept in the monastery.

Gallery

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Cheri Butterfly Bifocal Sunglasses in Tortoiseshell ...

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Smith Optics Lowdown Sunglasses LDPCBOIB B&H Photo Video

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Lyst

Lyst

Source: www.lyst.co.uk