What is an LED?

In 1961 two researchers, Robert Biard and Gary Pittman, discovered that a certain compound was capable of emitting infrared radiation when traversed by an electric current. This compound is GAAS (gallium arsenide), this compound is used in the manufacture of diodes and other rectifiers. But infra-violet radiation can not be seen with the naked eye, soon in 1962 Nick Holonyak was able to obtain a visible light red in the light. Robert and Gary patented the idea, but Nick Holonyak is considered the inventor of LED (Light Emitting Diode).

Diode

The LED is a light emitting diode, but there are other types of diodes. Diode is an electronic component, made of germanium or silicon, which conducts electric current only in a polarization (positive anode and negative cathode), this polarization is called rectification, and is used to convert AC to DC. And extract information from a signal modulated in amplitude (AM). There are also other types of diodes for certain functions.

Main Types of Diodes:

  • Rectifiers: rectifier diodes are the most common, have direct polarization (positive anode, negative cathode), are used to convert AC current into DC;
  • Zener Diode: Commonly used in voltage regulator circuits and power supplies, the peculiar of this type of diode is its polarization. Different from that already mentioned, this diode has the inverse polarization, that is, negative anode and positive cathode;
  • Tunnel: devices used in high frequency (microwaves), through phenomena of the quantum mechanics. They are used in amplifier circuits, oscillators and frequency converters;
  • LED: are diodes that when run by an electric current are able to emit light;

Definition of LED

The LED word comes from the English Light Emitting Diode, which means Light Emitting Diode. The LED is an electronic semiconductor component, composed of silicon or germanium semiconductor crystal. The LED has the same technology used in computer chips, which have the ability to turn energy into light. The transformation of electric energy into light that LEDs have is different from the transformation that incandescent bulbs make. Conventional incandescent lamps use a metallic filament, whereas in LEDs this transformation is done in matter, being called solid state. In incandescent bulbs the metal filament is placed inside it, this same filament heats up in the passage of electric current. The atoms have their degree of agitation so increased that light emission occurs. In the LED light emission occurs when the electric current travels through the PN junction material (semiconductor diode), emitting infrared radiation. The most important component of an LED is the semiconductor chip, responsible for generating light, this chip has very small dimensions, smaller than the size of a conventional LED, about 0.5 mm.

The LED is a bipolar component, it has two terminals called anode and cathode, which determine or not the polarization of the LED, that is, the form that is polarized determines the passage or not of electric current, this causing the occurrence of light. The polarization that allows the emission of light by the LED is the anode terminal in the positive and the cathode in the negative, to identify which of the terminals is the anode and which is the cathode, just observe the size of the terminals. The largest “leg” of the LED is the anode, and the smallest is the cathode.

Definition of LED

Use of LED

The LED is usually used in electronics, where it is advantageous its application for signaling (on or off), for example. It is very easy to find LEDs in various home appliances, such as LED TVs, also in radios, computers, some types of traffic lights and so on. However, as a result of energy crises and concern about the proper use of electric energy and its economy, LED has also taken up space in home lighting with LED bulbs.

LED bulbs have several promising and innovative features when it comes to residential lighting, as well as being less environmentally friendly, like other bulbs. As previously stated, bulbs use a metal filament in transforming electrical energy into light, this leads to heating and low lamp life as compared to LED. LED bulbs are the future of residential lighting because they are economical and have a long service life. To learn more about LED light, visit our site: BRIDGAT.

Types of LEDs

There are variations of LED models, some of them are:

  • Common fuzzy LEDs: The light from these LEDs is spread by their plastic caps. The goal would be for the light to be uniform across the surface of the LED, but there are still spots with higher brightness and lower brightness;
  • High-brightness LEDs: The luminous power of these LEDs is much greater than diffuse LEDs, for example. The plastic capsule is transparent, which increases the brightness of the LED, its light is concentrated;
  • LED tapes: As the name suggests, it is a tape that has, in its extension, several tiny LEDs, shining together or alternating, depending on the model of the tape;
  • Bicolour LEDs: can be fuzzy or transparent, have two colors, or the combination of two colors to form a third color. It can display two or three terminals;
  • RGB or tri-color LEDs: have three colors, red (Red), green (Green) and blue (Blue). They may be fuzzy or transparent. The use of colors can be in conjunction or individual;
  • SMD LEDs: are the LEDs used in the LED strips, they can be diffuse, transparent or tri-colored;
  • Matrix LEDs: are sets of LEDs used in rows or columns, to display leras and even resolution graphics baia. They may be fuzzy, tricolor or transparent, may work together or individually depending on the model;

The size of LEDs can usually range from 3 to 10mm, others size, smaller or larger, are usually for specific cases. The amount of LED lighting is always measured in lumens, and its useful life depends on the location and manner of use, but ranges from 25,000 to 100,000 hours.

 

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